plasma from his Tesla coil discharge, Georg Lichtenberg discovered and studied the phenomenon now called Lichtenberg figures. Lichtenberg figures are cracks that form in dielectrics when high voltages are applied. They are named after Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, who originally discovered and studied them.
Lichtenberg figures are often associated with electrical discharges, such as those from electrical sparks or lightning strikes. However, they can also be created by other means, such as from radioactive decay or X-rays.
Lichtenberg figures can be observed in a wide variety of materials, including wood, plastics, glass, and even human tissue. They are often used as a means of studying the properties of these materials, as well as of investigating the effects of high voltage on them.
Lichtenberg figures typically have a fractal-like structure, with a complex and often symmetrical pattern of branches. They are often highly electrical conductive, and can be used to create electrical circuits.
Lichtenberg figures are created when high voltages are applied to a dielectric material. The electric field created by the high voltage ionizes the molecules in the material, causing them to become electrically charged.
These charged molecules then migrate through the material, creating paths of least resistance. As they do so, they leave behind a trail of conductive material, which forms the Lichtenberg figure.
The process of Lichtenberg figure formation is known as corona discharge. Corona discharge is often used in industry to clean electrical equipment, as the high voltages used can break down any build-up of dirt or grime.
Lichtenberg figures can be dangerous if created in certain materials, such as human tissue. This is because the high voltages involved can cause burns, or even death, if the person is not careful.
Lichtenberg figures are often created accidentally, when electrical equipment is not properly insulated. This can be a hazard in industrial settings, where high voltages are commonly used.
Lichtenberg figures can also be created deliberately, for example for the purpose of electrical circuit creation. This is a popular technique in the art world, where Lichtenberg figures are used to create intricate patterns on surfaces.
Lichtenberg figures are not permanent, and will eventually disappear over time. This is because the charges that created them will eventually dissip
What is the difference between a microwave transformer and a regular transformer?
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic flux, which, in turn, induces a varying electromotive force across a second coil wound around the same core. Electrical energy can be transferred between the two coils, without a metallic connection between them. Faraday's law of induction discovered in 1831 described the induced voltage effect in any coil due to changing magnetic flux in the circuit. Transformers are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power applications.
A regular transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy between two or more circuits through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. The transformer is a core-and-coil assembly where one circuit magnetically couples to the other through a common iron core. The primary winding is the winding where the energy is input into the transformer. The alternating current flowing through this winding produces a magnetic flux in the transformer's core. This flux is then "coupled" to the secondary winding, where energy is output from the transformer. The winding that the energy is transferred to is referred to as the "load." The number of windings on the transformer's core determines the transformer's turns ratio. The transformer's turns ratio is used to calculate the secondary voltage output by the transformer when a specific primary voltage is applied to its input winding.
A microwave transformer is a transformer that is specially designed to operate at high frequencies, typically in the range of 300 MHz to 30 GHz. Microwave transformers are used in a variety of RF and microwave circuits, such as RF amplifiers, microwave oscillators, and impedance matching circuits. One of the challenges in designing high-frequency transformers is to minimize loss. At high frequencies, the skin effect causes current to flow only on the surface of the conductor. This effectively reduces the cross-sectional area of the conductor, causing increased resistance and loss. To minimize these losses, microwave transformers are typically made with solid conductors, such as copper or silver, and have a low number of turns.
What is the best way to protect the transformer from overloading?
The best way to protect the transformer from overloading is by installing a transformer protection device. This device will monitor the transformer's current and voltage levels and will automatically shut off the power to the transformer if it senses that the transformer is overloaded. This will prevent the transformer from being damaged by excessive heat and will also help to prevent power outages.
Frequently Asked Questions
What kind of transformer/power supply is needed to make Lichtenberg figures?
You will need a large power transformer, such as a 4kV 25mA neon sign transformer. Most art supplies stores carry these types of transformers. You also need some safety equipment, such as gloves and an electrician's tape. Finally, you will need to cover the power output with-out touching the leads when in use. This can be done by connecting the power output to earth ground using an optional earth lead kit (sold at most hardware stores).
Can I use a microwave as a transformer?
There are many possible configurations of a microwave transformer, depending on your power requirements. However, it is important to note that a microwave over transformer does not typically offer the same level of protection for your electrical components as a more traditional AC or DC transformer would. If you're using a microwave as a transformer, be sure to take additional precautions, such as adding an appropriate fuse or circuit breaker.
How do you make high voltage power from a microwave?
One way to make high voltage power is to use a transformer you can scavenge from old or broken microwave ovens. Quite dangerous and exposed, so be very careful.
What is the output power of an ideal transformer?
The output power of an ideal transformer is equal to the input power.
What power supply do I need to make my own Lichtenberg figures?
A high voltage (HV) source, such as a microwave oven transformer (MOT) or a neon sign transformer (NST), is required, and at least one supplier offers a solid state high voltage power supply and kit for making your own wood Lichtenberg figures. Because the HV current is limited, an NST is considerably safer than using a MOT as a HV source.